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Focus and Scope

"A few scholarly ventures have defined the early history of peer-reviewed online research and publication in the humanities. 19 is one of them."
--Jerome McGann, founder of the Rossetti Archive and author of Radiant Textuality: Literary Studies After the World Wide Web (Palgrave/St. Martin's Press, 2001)

19 is an open-access, scholarly, refereed web journal dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary study in the long nineteenth century. Based at Birkbeck, under the general editorship of Professor Hilary Fraser (Geoffrey Tillotson Chair, Birkbeck, University of London), and Dr Carolyn Burdett, 19 extends the activities of the Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies by making the high-quality, original scholarship presented at its regular conferences, symposia and other events available to an international audience. We publish two themed issues annually, each consisting of a collection of peer-reviewed articles showcasing the broadest range of new research in nineteenth-century studies, as well as special forums advancing critical debate in the field.

Notably the first free web journal of its kind in nineteenth-century studies when launched in October 2005, 19 has quickly established itself as a popular and valuable resource for nineteenth-century scholars. Our reading numbers have steadily increased since our first issue, and 19 currently receives over 1,000 requests for pages a day: our reading statistics show that articles are downloaded on average in their hundreds. In February 2009 19 aggregated with NINES; here, you can search for, collect, tag and share 19 content using the NINES collex interface.

19 continues to innovate and pursue the highest standards in electronic scholarly publishing. In October 2009, we moved to an Open Journal Systems format to enhance our interoperability with other online resources and aid the long-term preservation and searchability of our content. As part of this redevelopment, we look forward to offering readers the choice of accessing  articles in downloadable PDF form, or via your web browser as html pages. Our new site enhances 19’s supplementary features, allowing us to present a rich array of audio and visual material alongside our articles that could not be incorporated in more traditional publishing methods. We invite you to:

  • Explore: browse through our elegant image galleries, featuring both old and newly digitized material specially-curated and contextualized for 19. Download sound files and listen to nineteenth-century actors’ voices, interviews, and more…
  • Debate: we are pleased to introduce a new feature allowing readers to comment on and discuss article and image content, and we encourage readers to join critical debates and offer new perspectives on material. We also welcome review essays of up to 2500 words.
  • Research: draw on an extensive range of nineteenth-century online resources via our reading tools to enhance your research. Conveniently set up to enable you to search for terms or references alongside reading articles, 19 makes use of web 2.0 technologies to aid your research, encouraging you to discover new links and make fresh connections between material and ideas.
  • Learn: our articles are freely available to view and print, making 19 a valuable educational resource for students and teachers of nineteenth-century studies alike. By enabling new pathways to other materials and resources, 19 is an exciting and inspiring first point-of-call for inquisitive learners.
  • Update: we aim to update our links and reading tools regularly in line with our twice-yearly issue publication, and to introduce readers to new and innovative digital projects in nineteenth-century studies. Please contact us if you would like to suggest a link to a resource, or contribute a review of a digital resource, or if you are having difficulties accessing a resource.


Publication Frequency

We typically publish two themed issues annually (in April and October), each consisting of peer-reviewed articles that showcase the broadest range of new research in nineteenth-century studies.

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Archiving Policy

This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration. More...


Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, Birkbeck, University of London

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